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Gitara: A Guide to the History, Types, Songs, and How to Play
Gitara is a Tagalog term that refers to a musical instrument that has six strings and a long neck. It is derived from the Spanish word guitarra, which itself comes from the Latin word cithara, a type of ancient lyre. Gitara is also known as guitar in English, and it is one of the most popular and versatile instruments in the world. You can use a gitara to play anything from classical to rock, from folk to jazz, from blues to metal, and everything in between.
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In this article, you will learn more about gitara, including its history, types, songs, and how to play it. Whether you are a beginner or an advanced player, you will find something useful and interesting in this article. You will also discover some free resources and links to help you further your learning and enjoyment of gitara.
History of Gitara
The history of gitara can be traced back to the 16th century in Spain, where it evolved from two earlier instruments: the guitarra latina and the vihuela. The guitarra latina was a late-medieval instrument with a waisted body and four strings. The vihuela was a guitar-shaped instrument with six double courses (pairs) of strings that was played in place of the lute. The early gitara was narrower and deeper than the modern gitara, with a less pronounced waist. It had four courses of strings, three double and one single, that ran from a violin-like pegbox to a tension bridge glued to the soundboard. The soundboard had a circular sound hole, often decorated with a carved wooden rose. The tuning of the early gitara was CFAD, similar to the center four courses of the lute and the vihuela.
From the 16th to the 19th century, several changes occurred in the instrument. A fifth course of strings was added before 1600; by the late 18th century a sixth course was added. Before 1800, the double courses were replaced by single strings tuned EADGBE, still the standard tuning today. The violin-type pegbox was replaced by a flat head with rear tuning pegs; later, metal screws were substituted for the tuning pegs. The tied-on gut frets were replaced by built-on ivory or metal frets. The bridge was made larger and sturdier, and the sound hole was enlarged. The body was made wider and shallower, and the waist was more pronounced. The soundboard was reinforced with fan-shaped struts to support the increased tension of the strings. The result was a louder, brighter, and more resonant instrument that became the basis of the modern classical gitara.
During the 19th and 20th centuries, gitara continued to develop and diversify. New types of gitara emerged, such as the acoustic gitara, which used steel strings instead of nylon or gut, and the electric gitara, which used magnetic pickups to amplify the sound. The Hawaiian gitara, also known as the lap steel gitara or the slide gitara, was invented in the late 19th century by Hawaiian musicians who used a metal bar or a glass bottle to slide along the strings instead of fretting them. The Hawaiian gitara influenced many genres of music, such as country, blues, rock, and pop.
Throughout its history, gitara has been played by many talented and influential musicians and composers in different genres and eras. Some of the most notable ones include Fernando Sor (17781839), a Spanish composer who wrote many works for classical gitara; Francisco Tárrega (18521909), another Spanish composer who is considered the father of modern classical gitara; Andrés Segovia (18931987), a Spanish virtuoso who popularized classical gitara in the 20th century; Django Reinhardt (19101953), a Belgian-born gypsy jazz guitarist who pioneered a distinctive style of swing; Robert Johnson (19111938), an American blues guitarist who influenced many rock and roll artists; Les Paul (19152009), an American inventor and musician who developed one of the first solid-body electric guitars; B.B. King (19252015), an American blues legend who is widely regarded as one of the greatest guitarists of all time; Chet Atkins (19242001), an American country guitarist who was known for his fingerstyle technique; Jimi Hendrix (19421970), an American rock icon who revolutionized electric guitar playing with his innovative use of effects and feedback; Eric Clapton (born 1945), an English rock and blues guitarist who is considered one of the most influential guitarists in history; Carlos Santana (born 1947), a Mexican-American rock guitarist who blends Latin, jazz, and rock elements in his music; Eddie Van Halen (19552020), a Dutch-American rock guitarist who pioneered the tapping technique and influenced many metal and hard rock guitarists; Paco de Lucía (19472014), a Spanish flamenco guitarist who expanded the boundaries of flamenco music with his fusion of jazz, classical, and world music; Tommy Emmanuel (born 1955), an Australian acoustic guitarist who is known for his complex fingerstyle arrangements and percussive effects; Joe Satriani (born 1956), an American instrumental rock guitarist who is one of the most successful guitarists in history; Steve Vai (born 1960), another American instrumental rock guitarist who is known for his virtuosic skills and expressive playing; Slash (born 1965), an English-American rock guitarist who is best known as the lead guitarist of Guns N' Roses; John Petrucci (born 1967), an American progressive metal guitarist who is one of the founding members of Dream Theater; Mark Knopfler (born 1949), a British rock guitarist who is the leader of Dire Straits; Kirk Hammett (born 1962), an American thrash metal guitarist who is the lead guitarist of Metallica; Yngwie Malmsteen (born 1963), a Swedish neoclassical metal guitarist who is known for his fast and technical playing; Joe Bonamassa (born 1977), an American blues-rock guitarist who is one of the most acclaimed guitarists in the modern era; Sungha Jung (born 1996), a South Korean acoustic guitarist who rose to fame through YouTube with his impressive covers and original compositions.
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Types of Gitara
There are many types of gitara that differ in their design, construction, sound, and style. Here are some of the most common types:
The classical gitara, also known as the Spanish gitara or the nylon-string gitara, is the oldest and most traditional type of gitara. It has a hollow wooden body with a flat top and back, a long neck with 19 frets, and six nylon or gut strings that are plucked with the fingers or a plectrum. The classical gitara has a warm, mellow, and rich tone that is suitable for playing classical, flamenco, folk, and Latin music. The classical gitara is usually played in a sitting position, with the instrument resting on the left leg and the neck angled slightly upwards. The classical gitara requires a high level of skill and precision to play well, as it involves complex finger movements, coordination, and expression. Some of the famous classical gitara players are Andrés Segovia, Julian Bream, John Williams, Ana Vidovic, and Pepe Romero.
The acoustic gitara, also known as the steel-string gitara or the electric gitara, is a modern type of gitara that has a hollow wooden body with a curved top and back, a long neck with 20 or more frets, and six steel strings that are plucked or strummed with the fingers or a pick. The acoustic gitara has a bright, loud, and crisp tone that is suitable for playing pop, rock, country, blues, jazz, and folk music. The acoustic gitara can be played in a sitting or standing position, with the instrument resting on the right leg or hanging from a strap. The acoustic gitara is easier to play than the classical gitara, as it has lighter strings, lower action (the distance between the strings and the fretboard), and wider frets. However, it still requires practice and dedication to master. Some of the famous acoustic gitara players are Bob Dylan, James Taylor, Joni Mitchell, Eric Clapton, Tommy Emmanuel, and Ed Sheeran.
The Hawaiian gitara, also known as the lap steel gitara or the slide gitara, is a unique type of gitara that has a solid or hollow wooden body with a flat top and back, a short neck with no frets, and six or more steel strings that are plucked or strummed with the fingers or a pick. The Hawaiian gitara is played horizontally on the lap or on a stand, with the strings facing upwards. The player uses a metal bar or a glass bottle to slide along the strings instead of fretting them with the fingers. This creates a smooth and gliding sound that mimics the human voice or other instruments. The Hawaiian gitara has a sweet, soothing, and exotic tone that is suitable for playing Hawaiian, country, blues, rock, and pop music. The Hawaiian gitara is relatively easy to play compared to other types of gitara, as it does not require finger strength or coordination. However, it does require good ear training and timing to play in tune and rhythm. Some of the famous Hawaiian gitara players are Joseph Kekuku (the inventor of the instrument), Sol Hoopii, Jerry Byrd, David Lindley, and Ben Harper.
Songs for Gitara
There are thousands of songs that you can play on your gitara, depending on your preference and skill level. You can find free gitara music online to download or stream from various websites and platforms, such as YouTube, Spotify, Ultimate Guitar, Guitar Tabs, and Chordify. You can also use chord charts and tabs to learn gitara songs, which are simplified notations that show you the finger positions and the rhythm of the song. Chord charts use symbols and letters to indicate the chords and the lyrics of the song, while tabs use numbers and lines to indicate the frets and the strings of the gitara. Here are some examples of chord charts and tabs for some popular gitara songs:
Type of Gitara
Wonderwall by Oasis
Romance Anónimo by Anonymous
Sleepwalk by Santo & Johnny
Hotel California by Eagles
Acoustic Gitara/Electric Gitara
Asturias by Isaac Albéniz
How to Play Gitara
If you want to learn how to play gitara, you will need a few things: a gitara, a tuner, a pick or a plectrum, and some patience and passion. Playing gitara can be fun and rewarding, but it also requires practice and dedication. Here are some basic steps and tips for playing gitara:
Step 1: Tune your gitara
The first thing you need to do before playing your gitara is to tune it. Tuning your gitara means adjusting the tension of the strings so that they produce the correct pitches. You can use a tuner, which is a device that shows you the pitch of each string and tells you whether it is too high or too low. You can also use an online tuner, a tuning app, or a tuning fork. To tune your gitara, you need to turn the tuning pegs at the head of the gitara until the string matches the desired pitch. The standard tuning for gitara is EADGBE, from the thickest to the thinnest string. You can also use alternative tunings, such as drop D, open G, or DADGAD, to create different sounds and effects.
Step 2: Hold your gitara
The next thing you need to do is to hold your gitara properly. Holding your gitara correctly will help you play more comfortably and efficiently. There are different ways to hold your gitara depending on the type and the position. For classical gitara, you should sit on a chair with your back straight and your left foot on a footstool. You should rest the lower bout (the widest part) of the gitara on your left thigh and the waist (the narrow part) on your right thigh. You should hold the neck of the gitara with your left hand and place your thumb behind it. You should pluck the strings with your right hand and use your fingernails or a plectrum. For acoustic or electric gitara, you can sit or stand with a strap around your shoulder. You should rest the lower bout of the gitara on your right thigh and hold the body of the gitara against your chest. You should hold the neck of the gitara with your left hand and place your thumb on top of it. You should strum or pick the strings with your right hand and use a pick or a plectrum.
Step 3: Practice fretting
Fretting is the act of pressing the strings against the fretboard with your left hand fingers to produce different notes. To fret correctly, you need to place your fingers close to the frets (the metal bars on the fretboard) and press firmly but not too hard. You also need to avoid touching other strings or muting them with your fingers. You should use one finger per fret and keep them curved and relaxed. You should practice fretting by playing scales, chords, and melodies on your gitara.
Step 4: Practice strumming
Strumming is the act of sweeping your right hand across the strings to produce sound. To strum correctly, you need to hold your pick or plectrum between your thumb and index finger and keep it at an angle to the strings. You also need to move your wrist and forearm in a smooth and steady motion, not just your fingers. You should practice strumming by playing different patterns and rhythms on your gitara.
Step 5: Practice picking
Picking is the act of plucking individual strings with your right hand fingers or a pick or plectrum to produce sound. To pick correctly, you need to use your thumb for the bass strings (E, A, D) and your index, middle, and ring fingers for the treble strings (G, B, E). You also need to alternate between upstrokes (moving away from the body) and downstrokes (moving towards the body) to create a smooth and consistent sound. You should practice picking by playing arpeggios, melodies, and solos on your gitara.
Step 6: Practice fingerstyle
Fingerstyle is a technique of playing gitara that combines fretting, strumming, and picking with your right hand fingers without using a pick or plectrum. To play fingerstyle, you need to use your thumb for the bass strings and your index, middle, ring, and sometimes little fingers for the treble strings. You also need to use different patterns and techniques, such as hammer-ons, pull-offs, slides, bends, harmonics, and percussions, to create a rich and varied sound. You should practice fingerstyle by playing songs that use this technique, such as classical, folk, blues, and country music.
Gitara is a wonderful instrument that can bring you joy and satisfaction. It has a long and fascinating history, a wide range of types and styles, and a vast repertoire of songs and genres. Learning to play gitara can be challenging but rewarding, as it can improve your musical skills, creativity, and confidence. Whether you want to play for fun, for relaxation, or for performance, gitara can be your best friend and companion.
If you want to learn more about gitara, you can check out some of the following resources and links:
Guitar Lessons: A website that offers free online guitar lessons for beginners and intermediate players.
Justin Guitar: A website that offers free online guitar lessons for all levels and styles.
Guitar Tricks: A website that offers online guitar lessons for all levels and styles with over 11,000 videos.
Guitar Masterclass: A website that offers online guitar lessons for all levels and styles with over 4,000 videos.
Guitar Noise: A website that offers free online guitar lessons, tips, articles, and forums.
Guitar Scientist: A website that offers free online tools for guitar players, such as a chord generator, a scale finder, a fretboard trainer, and a metronome.
Guitar World: A website that offers news, reviews, interviews, lessons, tabs, videos, and more for guitar players.
Guitar Player: A website that offers news, reviews, lessons, gear, artists, and more for guitar players.
Acoustic Guitar: A website that offers news, reviews, lessons, songs, gear, artists, and more for acoustic guitar players.
Classical Guitar: A website that offers news, reviews, lessons, music, gear, artists, and more for classical guitar players.
Premier Guitar: A website that offers news, reviews, lessons, gear, artists, and more for electric guitar players.
I hope you enjoyed this article and learned something new about gitara. Gitara is a beautiful and expressive instrument that can enrich your life and music. Why not give it a try and see for yourself?